HeartPhillip the Innocent was responsible for the death of some 15,000 opponents at the Massacre of Deuxchamps, in 1259. His method of dispatching the opponents was so virulent and brutal that the world Deuxchamps, for years, was the word in French equal to "horror" and "bloody nightmare."
When Phillip the Innocent died towards the end of the thirteenth century, it was found that his heart was no larger than the heart of a wren.--- French Politics
Before the Renaissance
P. N. Lipschitz